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The .NET framework, developed by Microsoft, provides a large class library and language interoperability. This makes it an essential skill for a programmer working with a Microsoft stack.
An Enum or Enumerated type, is a data type that consists of a set of named values. As most programming languages implement the enum type as one of their primitives it's an important concept for all developers.
Reusing a properly engineered and thoroughly tested class library is the best way to keep your code concise, performant and reliable.
The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft's .NET framework, manages the execution of .NET programs. Knowing how the runtime works is necessary for making a large application fast and stable, avoiding issues like memory leaks and occasional slowdowns.
LINQ provides a compile functional interface for querying datasets. A good .NET developer should be able to take full advantage of this.
A package manager is a collection of software tools that automates the process of installing, upgrading and removing computer programs and libraries.
Visual Basic .NET is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language, implemented on the .NET Framework. A basic familiarity with the programming language used on the job is a prerequisite for quickly getting up to speed.
Arithmetic is a fundamental branch of mathematics. An understanding of arithmetic concepts, and their application, is important for every candidate.
Access modifiers like public, protected, or private should be used to specify accessibility levels - who can access the object or some of its parts. They are one of the key points for writing maintainable object-oriented code.
Object-oriented programming is a paradigm based on encapsulating logic and data into objects, which may then contain fields and procedures. Many of the most widely used programming languages are based on OOP, making it a very important concept in modern programming.
A dictionary (or associative array) is a data type composed of a collection of key-value pairs, where each possible key appears at most once in the collection. It is used when we need to access items by their keys.
Iteration is the act of repeating a process, or cycling through a collection. Iteration is one of the fundamental flow control tools available to developers.
Boxing and unboxing
Lists are collections that act as dynamic arrays. Lists offer the flexibility of dynamically sized arrays, the simplicity of access of arrays, and are more performant than more ubiquitous collections in most scenarios.
Boxing and unboxing
Knowing the process for converting a value to a reference type and vice-versa is often needed to make properly optimized code.
Memory management allows programs to request memory dynamically from the operating system, and free it for reuse when no longer needed. Many modern programming languages automate this process; however, it should still be an important consideration when implementing an application.
Familiarity with data serialization to and from formats such as XML and JSON is important as it is commonly used for interprocess communication
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability across the Internet. This is one of the most used formats for exchanging data over the web.
A regular expression (regex) is a special text string for describing a search pattern. It is a common way for extracting data from text.
The string data structure is used to represent text. It is one of the most commonly used data structures. Therefore, every programmer should be skilled at string manipulation.
The async function declaration defines an asynchronous function, which can await a response. Using the async-await pattern allows using asynchronous code while not losing readability or maintainability.
Multi-threading allows a process to make more efficient use of modern hardware by allowing code to execute asynchronously. It can drastically improve the performance of any app; however, it can be tricky to get right, making this an important topic for any programmer.
Since a string is an immutable data structure, concatenating multiple strings can introduce significant performance penalties. Every experienced developer should know when to use StringBuilder instead of simply concatenating two strings to improve performances in such scenarios.
Entity Framework is an object-relational mapper (O/RM) that enables .NET developers to work with a database using .NET objects. It eliminates the need for most of the data-access code that developers usually need to write. Knowledge of the Entity Framework is important for .NET developers working with databases.
Eager loading is the process whereby a query for one type of entity also loads related entities as part of the query. Eager loading doesn't need subsequent separate query execution to fetch related entities.
Lazy loading is the process whereby an entity or collection of entities is automatically loaded from the database the first time it is referred to. Lazy loading means delaying the loading of related data, until it is specifically requested.